About Us

Artistic records

  • Curriculums in the Ministry of Guidance under the supervision of the late Mr. Alofte, who is the first master of painting in Khorasan and designed by Sadr sadate master in 1988-1991
  • Painting and oil paintings from 1988-1901 years under the supervision of Professor Espahbodi
  • Cultural Heritage and Postgraduate Courses and Astan Quds Razavi under the supervision of Ms. Mushtaq and Mr. Reza Mahdavi and Ms. Samaneh Dostyi Professionally
  • Leather design courses

Collaborations

  • Ruling for Islamic exhibitions such as Gothic Nutcracker and Chicken and Chicken
  • Participating in women’s municipality galleries to encourage women
  • Participation in the Individual Festival at Rezvan Art Gallery
  • Work with ANKO LEATHER and leather design for Fariman meat factory
  • Online leather ordering

Persian miniature

Is a small painting on paper, whether a book illustration or a separate work of art intended to be kept in an album of such works called a muraqqa. The techniques are broadly comparable to the Western and Byzantine traditions of miniatures in illuminated manuscripts.

Although there is an equally well-established Persian tradition of wall-painting, the survival rate and state of preservation of miniatures is better, and miniatures are much the best-known form of Persian painting in the West, and many of the most important examples are in Western, or Turkish, museums. Miniature painting became a significant genre in Persian art in the 13th century, receiving Chinese influence after the Mongol conquests, and the highest point in the tradition was reached in the 15th and 16th centuries.

The tradition continued, under some Western influence, after this, and has many modern exponents. The Persian miniature was the dominant influence on other Islamic miniature traditions, principally the Ottoman miniature in Turkey, and the Mughal miniature in the Indian sub-continent.
Persian art under Islam had never completely forbidden the human figure, and in the miniature tradition the depiction of figures, often in large numbers, is central. This was partly because the miniature is a private form, kept in a book or album and only shown to those the owner chooses. It was therefore possible to be more free than in wall paintings or other works seen by a wider audience.

The Qur’an and other purely religious works are not known to have been illustrated in this way, though histories and other works of literature may include religiously related scenes, including those depicting the Prophet Muhammed, after 1500 usually without showing his face.
As well as the figurative scenes in miniatures, which this article concentrates on, there was a parallel style of non-figurative ornamental decoration which was found in borders and panels in miniature pages, and spaces at the start or end of a work or section, and often in whole pages acting as frontispieces.

In Islamic art this is referred to as “illumination”, and manuscripts of the Qur’an and other religious books often included considerable number of illuminated pages. The designs reflected contemporary work in other media, in later periods being especially close to book-covers and Persian carpets, and it is thought that many carpet designs were created by court artists and sent to the workshops in the provinces.
In later periods miniatures were increasingly created as single works to be included in albums called muraqqa, rather than illustrated books. This allowed non-royal collectors to afford a representative sample of works from different styles and periods.

Style

The bright and pure colouring of the Persian miniature is one of its most striking features. Normally all the pigments used are mineral-based ones which keep their bright colours very well if kept in proper conditions, the main exception being silver, mostly used to depict water, which will oxidize to a rough-edged black over time.

The conventions of Persian miniatures changed slowly; faces are normally youthful and seen in three-quarters view, with a plump rounded lower face better suited to portraying typical Central Asian or Chinese features than those of most Persians.

Lighting is even, without shadows or chiaroscuro. Walls and other surfaces are shown either frontally, or as at (to modern eyes) an angle of about 45 degrees, often giving the modern viewer the unintended impression that a building is (say) hexagonal in plan. Buildings are often shown in complex views, mixing interior views through windows or “cutaways” with exterior views of other parts of a facade.

Costumes and architecture are always those of the time. Many figures are often depicted, with those in the main scene normally rendered at the same size, and recession (depth in the picture space) indicated by placing more distant figures higher up in the space.

More important figures may be somewhat larger than those around them, and battle scenes can be very crowded indeed. Great attention is paid to the background, whether of a landscape or buildings, and the detail and freshness with which plants and animals, the fabrics of tents, hangings or carpets, or tile patterns are shown is one of the great attractions of the form.

The dress of figures is equally shown with great care, although artists understandably often avoid depicting the patterned cloth that many would have worn. Animals, especially the horses that very often appear, are mostly shown sideways on; even the love-stories that constitute much of the classic material illustrated are conducted largely in the saddle, as far as the prince-protagonist is concerned.

Landscapes are very often mountainous (the plains that make up much of Persia are rarely attempted), this being indicated by a high undulating horizon, and outcrops of bare rock which, like the clouds in the normally small area of sky left above the landscape, are depicted in conventions derived from Chinese art.

Even when a scene in a palace is shown, the viewpoint often appears to be from a point some metres in the air.
The earliest miniatures appeared unframed horizontally across the page in the middle of text, following Byzantine and Arabic precedents, but in the 14th century the vertical format was introduced, perhaps influenced by Chinese scroll-paintings.

This is used in all the luxury manuscripts for the court that constitute the most famous Persian manuscripts, and the vertical format dictates many characteristics of the style.
The miniatures normally occupy a full page, later sometimes spreading across two pages to regain a square or horizontal “landscape” format.

There are often panels of text or captions inside the picture area, which is enclosed in a frame, eventually of several ruled lines with a broader band of gold or colour. The rest of the page is often decorated with dense designs of plants and animals in a muted grisaille, often gold and brown; text pages without miniatures often also have such borders.

In later manuscripts, elements of the miniature begin to expand beyond the frame, which may disappear on one side of the image, or be omitted completely. Another later development was the album miniature, conceived as a single picture rather than a book illustration, though such images may be accompanied by short lyric poems.

The withdrawal of Shah Tahmasp I from commissioning illustrated books in the 1540s probably encouraged artists to transfer to these cheaper works for a wider circle of patrons. Albums or muraqqas were assembled by collectors with album miniatures, specimen pages of calligraphy, and miniatures taken from older books, to which border paintings were often added when they were remounted.

Album miniatures usually showed a few figures on a larger scale, with less attention to the background, and tended to become drawings with some tints of coloured wash, rather than fully painted.
In the example at right the clothes are fully painted, and the background uses the gold grisaille style earlier reserved for marginal decoration, as in the miniature at the head of the article.

Many were individual portraits, either of notable figures (but initially rarely portraits of rulers), or of idealized beautiful youths. Others were scenes of lovers in a garden or picnics. From about the middle of the 16th century these types of images became dominant, but they gradually declined in quality and originality and tended towards conventional prettiness and sentimentality.

Books were sometimes refurbished and added to after an interval of many years, adding or partly repainting miniatures, changing the border decoration, and making other changes, not all improvements.

The Conference of the Birds miniature in the gallery below is an addition of 1600 to a manuscript of over a century earlier, and elements of the style appear to represent an effort to match the earlier miniatures in the book.

The famous painting Princes of the House of Timur was first painted in 1550-55 in Persia for the exiled Mughal prince Humayun, who largely began the Mughal miniature tradition by taking back Persian miniaturists when he gained the throne.

It was then twice updated in India (c.1605 and 1628) to show later generations of the royal house. The dimensions of the manuscripts covered a range not dissimilar to typical modern books, though with a more vertical ratio; many were as small as a modern paperback, others larger.

Shah Tamasp’s Shahnameh stood 47 cm high, and one exceptional Shahnameh from Tabriz of c. 1585 stood 53 cm high.

Chinese influences

Before Chinese influence was introduced, figures were tied to the ground line and included “backgrounds of solid color”, or in “clear accordance with indigenous artistic traditions”.

However, once influenced by the Chinese, Persian painters gained much more freedom through the Chinese traditions of “unrestricted space and infinite planes”. Much of the Chinese influence in Persian art is probably indirect, transmitted through Central Asia. There appear to be no Persian miniatures that are clearly the work of a Chinese artist or one trained in China itself.

The most prestigious Chinese painting tradition, of literati landscape painting on scrolls, has little influence; instead the closest parallels are with wall-paintings and motifs such as clouds and dragons found in Chinese pottery, textiles, and other decorative arts.

The format and composition of the Persian miniature received strong influence from Chinese paintings.
The Ilkhanid rulers did not convert to Islam for several decades, meanwhile remaining Tantric Buddhists or Christians (usually Nestorians).

While very few traces now remain, Buddhist and Christian images were probably easily available to Persian artists at this period. Especially in Ilkhanid and Timurid Mongol-Persian mythological miniatures, mythical beasts were portrayed in a style close to the Chinese qilin, fenghuang (phoenix), bixie and Chinese dragon, though they have a much more aggressive character in Islamic art, and are often seen fighting each other or natural beasts.

Prominent Persian miniaturists

The workshop tradition and division of labour within both an individual miniature and a book, as described above, complicates the attribution of paintings. Some are inscribed with the name of the artist, sometimes as part of the picture itself, for example as if painted on tiles in a building, but more often as a note added on the page or elsewhere; where and when being often uncertain.

Because of the nature of the works, literary and historical references to artists, even if they are relied upon, usually do not enable specific paintings to be identified, though there are exceptions.

The reputation of Kamāl ud-Dīn Behzād Herawī, or Behzād, the leading miniaturist of the late Timurid era, and founder of the Safavid school, remained supreme in the Persianate world, and at least some of his work, and style, can be identified with a degree of confidence, despite a good deal of continuing scholarly debate.

Sultan Mohammed, Mir Sayyid Ali, and Aqa Mirak, were leading painters of the next generation, the Safavid culmination of the classic style, whose attributed works are found together in several manuscripts.

Abd al-Samad was one of the most successful Persian painters recruited by the Mughal Emperors to work in India. In the next generation, Reza Abbasi worked in the Late Safavid period producing mostly album miniatures, and his style was continued by many later painters.

In the 19th century, the miniatures of Abu’l-Hasan Khan Gaffari (Sani ol molk), active in Qajar Persia, showed originality, naturalism, and technical perfection. Mahmoud Farshchian is a contemporary miniaturist whose style has broadened the scope of this art.

Flower and chicken

Flowers and Chicken is a lightweight in Persian art. Flowers and Chicken are the symbol of divine grace and the subtle manifestation of the Creator. The romance of flowers and chicken is also likened to God’s commemoration and the mention of right. The flower has the status of the beloved and the bird (chicken), the lover.

In the painting of flowers and chicken, creating harmony between elegant painting elements. You do not need to be sure to draw the bird, but if you are in the waiting state, you will be patient with flowering and foraging with him. The bird, with its rising and bumpy state, separates itself from the material world and has a climb to the immortal world.
Historically, the combination of plants and birds began with the geometric designs since planting away. Because flowers and plants with their looped and bent bunches can accept geometric designs, but birds with their organs’ softness require non-nondestructive designs.

There are flowers and poultry works from the Seljuk, Safavid, and Qajar times, which have differences, but the process of their changes has slowed down over time.

At the end of the Safavid period, birds were carefully pulled up, and then there was no dramatic change in the art. There are differences in the way of doing it. For example, in Shiraz, petals are full and in other ways they are quite thin.

About Fatemeh Haghi (Farsi)

سوابق هنری

• دوره های آموزشی در وزارت ارشاد زیر نظر مرحوم آقای آلفته که از اولین استاد نگارگری در خراسان و طراحی زیر نظر استاد صدر سادات در سال 1367 تا 1369 هجری شمسی

• دوره های طراحی و رنگ و روغن از سال 1367 تا 1370 زیر نظر استاد اسپهبدی

• دوره های میراث فرهنگی و دوره های تکمیلی و آستان قدس رضوی زیر نظر اساتید خانم مشتاق، آقای رضا مهدوی و خانم ثمانه دوستی به صورت حرفه ای

• دوره های طراحی روی چرم

همکاری ها

• برگزاری نمایشگاه های اسلامی از جمله نگارگری و گل و مرغ

• شرکت در نگارخانه های شهرداری بانوان برای تشویق بانوان

• شرکت در جشنواره انفرادی در نگارخانه رضوان

• همکاری با کارخانه چرم آنکو و طراحی روی چرم برای کارخانجات گوشت فریمان

• سفارش های چرم به صورت آنلاین

نگارگری ایرانی

بحث درباره نقاشی قدیم ایرانی، غالباً هنر مینیاتور را به ذهنها می‌آورد. در واقع، مشهورترین و ارزنده‌ترین نمونه‌های هنر تصویری ایران را می‌توان بر صفحات نسخه‌های خطی و مرقعات ملاحظه کرد ما کاربرد واژه نگارگری برای این گونه تصاویر را بر اصطلاح مینیاتور ترجیح می‌دهیم.

هنر نگارگری ایرانی-اسلامی از سده چهاردهم تا هشتم وسده هفدهم تا یازدهم شکوفایی نمایان داشت؛ ولی آثار تصویری به جای مانده از ادوار پیش از اسلام تا زمان حمله مغولان، و همچنین آثار دیوارنگاری، پرده نگاری، قلمدان نگاری و غیره در قرون متاخر نیز جلوه‌هایی دیگر-اما کمتر شناخته شده-از نقاشی ایرانی به‌شمار می‌آیند.

نقاشی یا نگارگری ایرانی که به اشتباه مینیاتور نیز خوانده می‌شود شامل آثاری از دوره‌های مختلف تاریخ اسلامی ایران است که بیشتر به صورت مصورسازی کتب ادبی (ورقه و گلشاه، کلیله و دمنه، سمک عیار، و…)، علمی و فنی (التریاق، الادویه المفرده، الاغانی، و…)، تاریخی (جامع التواریخ، و…)، و همچنین، برخی کتب مذهبی، همچون، خاوران نامه می‌باشد.

تحولات هنر تصویری در نقاشی ایرانی

این به نظر می‌رسد که تحولات هنر تصویری در ایران-به رغم گسستهای تاریخی، نفوذ فرهنگهای بیگانه، و آمیختگی سنتهای غیر متجانس -از پیوستگی و تداوم نسبی برخوردار بوده‌اند.

البته این خط کمابیش پیوسته را بیشتر در استمرار روح فرهنگی و جوهر زیبایی‌شناسی می‌توان دید تا در همانندیهایی که ممکن است از لحاظ سبک و اسلوب در آثار مربوط به ادوار مختلف وجود داشته باشد.

مثلاً، اگر سنگ نگاره‌های بسیار کهن غارهای میرملاس و همیان در لرستان را در کنار نقوش سفالینه‌های سیلک، مورد ملاحظه قرار دهیم، با تجانسی آشکار در روش کلی بازنمایی انسان و حیوان مواجه می‌شویم.

نظیر چنین تجانسی را در مقایسه دیوار نگاره‌های کاخ چهلستون با پرده‌های رنگ روغنی مکتب پیکر نگاری درباری به نحو واضح تری تشخیص می‌دهیم. بدین قیاس، مثلاً نقشمایه اسب سوار در دیوارنگاری شهر دورا ارپوس، دیوارنگاری نیشابور، و نگارگری سده شانزدهم، وجوه اشتراک صوری و مضمونی دارند.

آنچه این تصاویر مختلف از لحاظ سبک، مقیاس، و کارکرد را در ریشه به هم مربوط می‌کند، عدم رغبت هنرمند ایرانی به تقلید از طبیعت و تأکید او بر بیان مفاهیم ذهنی و نمادین است. از این رو، می‌توان چکیده نگاری، تزیین و انتزاع را خصلتهای عام نقاشی ایرانی دانست.

پیشینه

اولین آثاری که بتوان نام نقاشی بر آن‌ها نهاد، در غار دوشه لرستان و با حدود هشت تا ده‌هزار سال قدمت به دست آمده، و در دوره تاریخی آنچه را که بتوان نقاشی نامید در دیوارنگاری‌های اشکانی و ساسانی می‌توان دید.

با ورود اسلام به ایران، این کشور تا مدت‌ها به دست امویان و عباسیان اداره شد، و از آن پس، با روی کار آمدن سلسله‌های ایرانی سامانیان، غزنویان، و آل بویه استقلال از دست رفتهٔ ایرانیان تا حدودی به آن‌ها بازگشت.

از این پس، زمینه برای احیای هنر و فرهنگ ایرانی فراهم شد و هنر ایرانی در خدمت اسلام درآمد. عمدهٔ آثار به دست آمده در این دوران شامل مصورسازی کتب می‌باشد و کمتر شامل نقاشی دیواری کاخ‌هاست.

همچنین، عنوان می‌شود که مسلمین در حین ترجمه آثار یونانی و بیزانسی تصاویر این کتب را نیز کپی‌برداری کرده‌اند.

بر اساس اسناد سه دوره متمایز ولی پیوسته برای تاریخ نقاشی قدیم ایرانی در نظر گرفته می‌شود:

1. دوره سنت‌های کهن، فاصله از طبیعت‌گرایی یونان-رومی، و بازگشت به سنتهای پیشین را نشان می‌دهند.

2. دوره شکوفایی نگارگری

3. دوره تکوین شیوه‌های التقاطی

نقاشی ایرانی، تأثیرات خارجی

از اوایل سده هفدهم ارتباط سیاسی و مبادله تجاری وسیعی میان ایران و کشورهای دیگر -به خصوص کشورهای اروپای باختری-برقرار شد. در این زمان، شاه عباس اول[صفوی]شهر قدیم اصفهان را نوسازی کرده و آن را به پایتختی خود برگزیده بود.

سفیران سیاسی، سیاحان، مبلغان مذهبی، بازرگانان و حتی هنرمندان و صنعتگران خارجی به این شهر روی آورده بودند. این جو بین‌المللی بر زندگی هنری اصفهان اثر گذاشت.

چنان‌که برخی از نگارگران ایرانی به روش بازنمایی طبیعت گرایانه و نیز به موضوع‌های نفاشی غربی جلب شدند. می‌توان فرهنگهای گورکانی هند، جامعه ارمنی، و اروپای باختری را در این گرایش مؤثر دانست، گرچه میزان و نوع تأثیرات مختلف بودند.

سبک‌شناسی

نگاره‌های این مکتب ساده و زیباست. البسه از پرداخت قابل توجهی به خصوص در چین و شکن جامه‌ها برخوردار است و همچنین استفاده از نقوش اناری، بال‌های فرشته گون و شیوه‌های بازنمایی حیوانات وام گرفته شده از هنر ساسانی است و در بیشینه این نگاره‌ها شاخه و برگی به نشانه طبیعت به چشم می‌خورد.

از خصوصیات دیگر این نگاره‌ها می‌توان به پس‌زمینه‌های ساده که یا بدون رنگ رها شده یا به‌طور اجمالی رنگ آمیزی شده‌اند گویی که نگاره‌ها در فضا رهایند، رنگ‌ها در نگاره اصلی اندک هستند ولی با هماهنگی‌ای چشم نواز به کار رفته‌اند.

گل و مرغ

گل و مرغ سبکی در نگارگری ایرانی است. گل و مرغ نماد موهبت الهی و تجلی ظریف و لطیف آفریدگار است. گفتگوی عاشقانه گل و مرغ نیز به تسبیح‌گویی خداوند و ذکر حق تشبیه می‌شود.

گل مقام معشوق را دارد و پرنده (مرغ)، عاشق. در نگارگری گل و مرغ ایجاد هارمونی بین عناصر نقاشی بسیار ظریف است. لازم نیست حتماً پرنده نیز در اثر ترسیم شود اما در صورت حضور به حالت انتظار صبورانه برای شکوفایی گل و عشقبازی با او است.

پرنده گاه با اوج‌گیری و حالت سرمستی، خود را از عالم ماده جدا کرده و حالت صعود به سوی عالم غیرمادی دارد.

از نظر تاریخی ترکیب گیاهان و پرندگان از زمان دور شدن ترسیم گیاهان به طرح‌های هندسی آغاز شد. زیرا گل‌ها و گیاهان با بافت حلقه‌ای و پر خم و پیچ خود می‌توانند طرح‌های هندسی را بپذیرند اما پرندگان با نرمی اندام‌هایشان به طرح‌های غیرهندسی نیاز دارند.

آثار گل و مرغ از دوران سلجوقی، صفوی و قاجار وجود دارند که تفاوت‌هایی با هم دارند اما روند تغییرات آنها در طول زمان کند بوده است. در اواخر دوران صفویه پرندگان با دقت زیادی کشیده می‌شدند و پس از آن تغییر شگرفی در این هنر دیده نمی‌شود.

در شیوه اجرا تفاوت‌هایی وجود دارد برای مثال در مکتب شیراز گلبرگ‌ها پُرتر هستند و در روش‌های دیگری کاملاً نازک و اندک هستند.